here, I employ a few North American ND / NMD sources' claims about the context of naturopathy to illustrate the 'epistemic and ontological conflation' of the whole nonsensical muddle:
001. a few ND sources:
Canadian alternating with American -- who claim "science" as the overarching category or methodology of naturopathy [the '#a' parts] and simultaneously claim nonscience / the preponderantly science-ejected as the category or mechanism of naturopathy [the '#b' parts]:
001.a. Canada nationally: the Canadian Association of Naturopathic Doctors states:
001.a1. in "May 4-11, 2008 - Naturopathic Medicine Week" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"naturopathic medicine is a distinct primary health care system that blends modern scientific knowledge with traditional and natural forms of medicine. Naturopathic doctors diagnose, treat, and prevent disease using natural therapies including botanical medicine, clinical nutrition, hydrotherapy, homeopathy, naturopathic manipulation, traditional Chinese medicine / acupuncture, and lifestyle counseling. Naturopathic doctors are primary health care providers with 7 years post-secondary education that practice safe, effective, science-based natural health care."
Note: so science [a distinct kind of knowledge], it is claimed, and: while distinct blended yet distinct...and natural [with within that the supernatural; more on that with Pizzorno towards the end]. Loving it.
001.a2. in "Natural Therapies" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"naturopathic therapies are all based on the same principles [...] assist[ing] the body's healing response [coded vitalism...e.g.] homeopathic remedies [...] when carefully matched to the patient [...] affect the body's 'vital force' [science-ejected vitalism...stimulating] the body's innate healing forces [coded vitalism...e.g.] the key principle that defines and connects all of Chinese medicine is that of chi or vital energy [science-ejected vitalism...] the chi of the body's organs and systems are all connected in [imaginary!!!] meridians or channels that lie just under the skin. A naturopathic doctor will use Eastern herbs and acupuncture to assist the body in regulating the chi and achieving balance."
Note: so the science-ejected concept of vitalism, explicitly stated and in a couple of guises. Yes, this is the NATIONAL Canadian naturopathy organization stating that science is nonscience, basically. And, no disclaimer that their 'philosophy' / logic is nonsensical at its core. But, they do like to label their irrational and absurd domain "professional" [vsc 2011-01-21].
Though I'll highlight naturopathy vitalism in the '#b' sections of this post, do keep in mind that under the overarching science label that naturopathy uses is also explicit supernaturalism and coded vitalism.
E.g., CAND states in "Guiding Principles" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
E.g., CAND states in "Guiding Principles" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"naturopathic doctors are guided by six principles [...] emphasized throughout a naturopathic doctor's training [making it ESSENTIAL...which] forms the foundation of this distinct form of health care [...#2] the healing power of nature (vis medicatrix naturae) [coded vitalism, how distinct]: your naturopathic doctor works to restore and support the powerful and inherent healing ability [coded vitalism] of your body, mind and spirit [supernaturalism...] naturopathic doctors identify and remove obstacles to recovery, facilitating and augmenting this ordered and intelligent healing ability [coded vitalism...#4] in treating the cause of any condition your naturopathic doctor takes into account not only your physical symptoms, but also mental, emotional, genetic, environmental, social, spiritual [supernaturalism] and other factors."
So, therein, naturopathy 'thinks' within this essential mode: the distinct is the coded / opaque, the natural is the supernatural, and taken along with the science claims, the scientific contains the science-exterior. Fascinating, bizarre. Where ever else have you seen supposed / self-claimed professionals, on a national level, being so irrational, absurd, and employing an explanatory approach to the public that is SO OPAQUE?
001.b. US nationally: the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians states:
001.b1. in "Naturopathic Principles and Philosophy" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"naturopathic medicine is [...a] science [...] distinguished by the principles which underlie and determine its practice. These principles are based upon the objective observation of the nature of health and disease, and are continually reexamined in the light of scientific advances."
Note: so, science and able to survive scientific scrutiny and objective. But, since when is the sectarian-figmentatious vitalistic [and supernatural!] such? And "philosophy"? Philosophy means the love of wisdom. Irrationalism and absurdity and downright manipulative falseness are not wise. And you shouldn't love such, or abide it! IMHO.
001.b2. in "Letting Nature Heal" (2009-08-11) [vsc 2010-05-10], the AANP's blog:
"[per ND Schor] is not our goal supposed to be to stimulate the vital force or the vis medicatrix naturae [there's that all-important equation that CAND didn't offer...aka] stimulating the vis [...] the vis medicatrix naturae [...] the healing power of nature [...] let me quote a respected medical writer on nature’s healing properties [...Hahnemann!] 'what the vital force does in these so-called crises and how it does it remains a mystery to us like all the internal operations of the organic vital economy' [yeah, that's admirable]."
Note: Schor was the AANP's first recipient of their Vis Award [yes, they have a vitalism award].
He tells us at his own web page "The Vis Award" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
He tells us at his own web page "The Vis Award" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"at the 2008 annual convention of the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians, Dr. Jacob Schor was both surprised and honored by his colleagues as the first recipient of the Vis Award [...] this award was created to honor those naturopathic doctors who have [...a] commitment to living and practicing naturopathic medicine in accordance to what is called the 'vis medicatrix naturae' or healing force of nature [VMN-HFN]. The vis medicatrix naturae, or vis, is one of the fundamental principles that guides and distinguishes the practice of naturopathic medicine [it's essential!!!]. The Vis is the belief [yes, this is a belief system though they deny this to legislators] that every living being contains a 'life force'. When this force is given proper building blocks and freed from obstacles, each being will come to a state of ideal health and balance."
So, the science-ejected sectarian vitalism belief is essential to naturopathy galore. VMN-HFN is the distinguishing principle of naturopathy that they so often refuse to be distinct about! They'd rather use a false label. It's better for commerce / trade.
Being opaque about that principle is actually coded into their ethical code. And when I say coded, I really mean it [per the Quebec Association of Naturopathic Medicine; their vitalism just stated as "the self-healing power of nature inherent in each individual human being". No "life force", "vital force" or "qi / chi" etc. Along with a bunch of supposed ethical requirements that naturopathy can't fulfill -- as even that web page illustrates -- like "will recognize a responsibility to give the generally held opinions of the profession when interpreting knowledge of a scientific nature to the public"; QANM can't even transparently communicate that vitalism in "What is Naturopathic Medicine?" yet we're told on the same page "naturopathic medicine [...] seeks to promote health through education and the scientific use of natural therapeutics" (vsc 2011-01-21)]. Amazing.
001.c. Canada provincially: the British Columbia Naturopathic Association states:
001.c1. in "About Naturopathic Medicine -- The Nature of Naturopathic Medicine" [vsc 2010-12-22]:
"naturopathic medicine is science based natural medicine [...built upon upon] a science-based platform [...that there's an abundance of evidence concerning] the scientific basis and validity of naturopathic protocols [...and speaks of] naturopathic scientific journals."
001.c2. in "Sharon Gurm, ND" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"Dr. Gurm believes strongly in the body’s innate ability to heal itself. By working with the vital force of the individual using a holistic approach, true healing and optimal health can be achieved."
001.d. US state-wise: the New York Association of Naturopathic Physicians states:
001.d1. in "Links - Schools" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"fully accredited naturopathic medical colleges & universities [...include] Bastyr University: Natural Health Sciences."
Note: science. NYANP links up to the AANMC [which covers all North American AANP-type schools]], which states in "Academic Curriculum" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"naturopathic medicine students [...] attend four-year graduate-level programs at accredited institutions, where they are educated in the same biomedical sciences as allopathic physicians [a false sectarian label!; and they don't mention that this 'sames science includes the science-exterior]. During their first two years of study, the curriculum focuses on basic and clinical sciences and diagnostics [...] some member schools in the AANMC actually require more hours of basic and clinical science than many top allopathic medical schools [the super-science claim!]. Students of naturopathic medicine use the Western medical sciences as a foundation [so they 'found' the science-exterior with science]." What a trip.
001.d2. in "Naturopathy" [at archive.org, vsc 2011-01-21]:
"naturopathic medicine encourages the self-healing process, the vis medicatrix naturae [coded vitalism...] the healing power of nature (vis medicatrix naturae) [coded vitalism] naturopathic medicine recognizes in the body an inherent ability, which is ordered and intelligent. Naturopathic doctors identify and remove obstacles to recovery and facilitate and augment this healing ability [coded vitalism...] homeopathic medicine. This powerful system of medicine is more than 200 years old and is widely accepted in many countries. Homeopathic medicines, when properly prescribed, affect the body’s 'vital force' and strengthen its innate ability to heal."
Note: vitalism. The NYANP explicit vitalism that NYANP has now apparently expunged -- furthering NYANP's licensure cause by hiding what naturopathy essentially is?
001.e. Canada ND-wise: Ontario's Shahram Ayoubzadeh, N.D. states:
001.e1. in "Naturopathic Medicine" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"naturopathic medicine [...] is an art and science of disease diagnosis, therapy, and prevention [...] to be registered as an N.D., one must have successfully completely a four-year program at an accredited college of naturopathic medicine. Before that, one must first complete three years of premedical sciences at the university undergraduate level. Chiropractors and medical doctors must also complete these three years of premedical sciences before they are eligible to apply to their respective programs [...] the first two years of the four-year program focus on basic medical sciences and diagnosis."
001.e.2. in "Frequently Asked Questions" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"the very nature of homeopathic remedies is integrated, working harmoniously and directly on the vital force instead of merely on the physiological body [...] conventional medicine has its place in health therapy when there is irreversible structural damage or when the manifestation of the disease has compromised an individual's health to the extent that the vital force is no longer capable of stimulating a viable curative response."
001.f. US ND-wise: the practice of NDs Phillips, Stretch, Celmer, Oberg, Karp, Risley, Deichert, Aschtgen states:
001.f1. in "About Our Medicine" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"the principles of naturopathic medicine are based on objective observation of the nature of health and disease [...] the naturopathic medical education consists of 2 years of basic science classes."
Note: objectivity, science.
001.f2. in "About Our Medicine" [vsc 2011-01-21]:
"homeopathy stimulates the body's vitality [...] homeopathy is a system that is encourages the body to heal itself, stimulating the body's vitality to initiate healing [...] treatment with NMT produces a physical 'release' which can encourage metabolic function, stimulate vital energies [...] TCM is based on the Chinese concept of 'qi' (pronounced 'chee' and usually translated as 'vital energy') and the theory of 'yin and yang' (the harmony of all the opposite elements and forces that make up existence). Qi flows through the body in channels, called meridians."
Note: yes, that is the same web page that claimed objectivity and science claiming sectarian vitalistic-figmentation. The ultimate of equations.
001.g. Canada school-wise: the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine states:
001.g1. in "Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine" [vsc 2009-12-15 from Google.com's cache]:
"naturopathic medicine is science-based, holistic philosophy and practice rooted in the principle of vis medicatrix naturae, the healing power of nature [coded vitalism...] the first two years of study, include the foundation medical sciences [...] for those applicants whose academic background does not include the sciences, CCNM offers a naturopathic college preparatory program."
001.g2. in "Healing Arthritis" [vsc 2011-01-21 from archive.org]:
"the Robert Schad Naturopathic Clinic located at the Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine [...] NDs address the underlying cause(s) of [...] rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [...and] osteoarthritis (OA) [...via] traditional Chinese medicine: TCM is used by NDs to help balance qi (energy flow) to reduce illness and promote health. Interventions include acupuncture, acupressure and Asian herbs and foods. Homeopathic medicine: NDs use diluted doses of natural substances (plants, animals and minerals) to stimulate the body’s vital force and promote self-healing."
001.h. US school-wise: the National University of Health Sciences states:
001.h1. it's name says it all.
001.h2. in "Bulletin 2009-2010" [2009-2010 Bulletin] [vsc 2010-08-28]:
"NT5110N Foundations of Naturopathic Medicine I [...] this course forms the basis of the clinical theory stream of courses in the ND program, which serves as a framework for practice. The course begins with an overview and the vision and ultimate goals of the ND program. The naturopathic principles are discussed at length. Major concepts such as health, holism, and vitalism [...] spirituality and its importance to life and healing, and the need for the physicians to be whole themselves, form the concluding portion of the course."
Note: vitalism, supernaturalism.
002. on 'epistemic and ontological conflation':
'epistemic conflation' is a term I invented some-what, I'll admit. Perhaps it's the word 'pseudoscience' in a tuxedo. I think it's pretty accurate. Epistemology is the study of knowledge-type, roughly. There is all knowledge and subsets of that group. Within that entirety are the subsets science and nonscience, and a whole bunch of other kinds of knowledge.
also within knowledge is the science-ejected. It is exceptionally absurd for naturopathy to categorically claim a context of science upon the HUGELY science-ejected. Naturopathy is claiming two locations for the same thing, when they are mutually exclusive / different locations.
in doing so, overall about the 'essentially naturopathic', naturopathyland is claiming that distinctions in knowledge-type are not possible for distinctions already PROFOUNDLY preponderant.
not only is science and nonscience blended / conflated i.e. 'epistemic conflation', they are then labeled the nonblended knowledge type known as science. And that is quite irrational and absurd. Because money changes hands, it is also a matter of false trade.
perhaps their horseshit words say it best: naturopathy blends yet is distinct, NDs are generalists who specialize, the profoundly / essentially science-ejected is able to survive scientific scrutiny.
ontological conflation comes into play once things are so indistinct / equated / simultaneous / irrational.
with ontology the study of 'being', the 'being' / boundaries so to speak or properties of things, built from a position of epistemic conflation, then hugely blur.
i'll use ND Pizzorno as an example of the outcome of this blending / conflating / integrating mode.
in his book "Total Wellness", he tells us that one of the important systems in the body is the "life force" akin to "spirit" and overall that naturopathy is "science-based" and "natural".
how much more conflated and illogical can you be [once you know them from the inside, that is]?
vitalism and supernaturalism are science-exterior and the science-exterior is different from the science-interior, the natural and the supernatural are different, body's and spirits are usually considered different.
something is not equal to something it is different from.