001. Jeremiah Yarmie writes in "The Story of Wöhler, Organic Chemistry, and Vitalism, Like You Have Never Heard It" [2014-11-24; my comments are in unquoted bold]:
"vitalism is the doctrine that processes of living organisms are governed by unique principles due to a 'vital essence' that is separate and distinct from the laws of physics and chemistry [...]";
"in the 19th century, many scientists accepted the idea of a vital essence as a fundamental principle [...then] in 1828, German chemist Friedrich Wöhler accidentally synthesized the organic molecule urea [...and] the synthesis of urea has gone down in many textbooks as the refutation of vitalism, but no single experiment refuted vitalism entirely [...] the idea of vitalism carried on long after [...but] vitalism was ultimately snuffed out in science by a steady accumulation of experimental evidence demonstrating that key life processes follow the same rules as chemical reactions carried out in test tubes [...]";
and, thus vitalism is PATENTLY science-exterior.
002. meanwhile, in naturopathyland:
vitalism is falsely claimed to survive scientific scrutiny, even at the '.gov' accomplice-level: