001. at the National Center for Science Education [my comments are in unquoted bold]:
001.a. Eugenie Scott writes in "Evolution vs. Creationism: An Introduction Second Edition":
"from the ancient Greeks up through the early nineteenth century, people from European cultures believed that living things possessed an elan vital or vital spirit, a quality that sets them apart from dead things and nonliving things such as minerals or water. Organic molecules, in fact, were thought to differ from other molecules because of the presence of this spirit. This view was gradually abandoned in science when more detailed study on the structure and functioning of living things repeatedly failed to discover any evidence for such an elan vital [...] vitalistic ways of thinking persist in some East Asian philosophies, such as in the concept of chi, but they have been abandoned in Western science for lack of evidence and because they do not lead to a better understanding of nature."
here's the book at Amazon.com, "Evolution vs. Creationism: An Introduction." NCSE has other such pages.
001.b. in "Appendices: Science; Transitional Fossils; and Embryos" we're told :
"by now it should be clear that vitalistic and supernatural hypotheses that invariably postulate vague and amorphous mechanisms whose workings are beyond human comprehension are untestable and uninformative and hence not scientific. In fact they are not even explanations, but statements of unsolvable mysteries beyond the powers of scientific investigation."
so, now we've got a huge a problem because naturopathy quite falsely claims ACADEMICALLY that vitalism and supernaturalism are within what they sell as "science".
002. naturopathy's 'science subset vitalistic-supernatural' inanity:
I'll pick on Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and Health Sciences!
002.a. there's SCNM's overarching science marketing label:
the "bio-medical scientific foundation" "branch of medical science" claim.
002.b. there's SCNM's vitalism, in "Drainage Club" which states:
"one of our naturopathic forefathers, Henry Lindlahr, states what he believed to be the causes of disease: [#1] lowered vitality (vital force)."
and this is not just an historical fact, it is what is at the center of naturopathy currently. Here's vitalism, by way of the ND who taught me at UBCNM in 1998, at their 2013 AANP Convention.
003. naturopathy's academic fraud apparatus:
so, obviously, there's huge fraud going on here, and piles and piles of money exchanging hands because a four-year in-residence doctorate is not cheap. Plus, there's the huge damage this fraud does since it diverts people away from legitimate doctor health science situations. I went thought it, I now watch it and warn about it, and I can't believe nobody is in jail yet for this.