Wednesday, March 2, 2016

The Naturocrit Podcast - s02e02a1 [Episode 012a1] - Script & Annotations

here, I provide an annotated script for the Naturocrit Podcast's Episode 012 Part 1 of Part 1, aka s02e02a1, titled "Preponderant and Universal Medical Ethical Codes and North American Naturopathy's Transgressions":

001. the Episode 012a1 script and annotations:

Standard Introduction: 

Welcome to, as that robot voice says, The Naturocrit Podcast, and thank you for boldly listening.

What ARE we even talking about?

Well, this podcast series is my take on naturopathic medicine, an area I've been studying for about twenty years, including my time in so-called 'scientific nonsectarian naturopathic medical school'.

My approach is a pairing of scientific skepticism and a deep knowledge of naturopathy's intimate details.

In previous episodes of this series, I established that naturopathy is, essentially, a kind of knowledge blending, misrepresentation, and irrationality.

I have termed naturopathy both 'an epistemic conflation falsely posing itself as an epistemic delineation' and 'the naturopathillogical':

the science-exterior is mixed with what is scientific, and then that whole muddle is absurdly claimed to be science as an entire category, while particular sectarian science-ejected oath-obligations and -requirements are coded or camouflaged, therein effectively disguising naturopathy's system of beliefs in public view.

Naturopathy's ultimate achievement is a profound erosion of scientific integrity and freedom of belief packaged in the marketing veneers "natural, holistic, integrative and alternative" and improperly embedded in the academic category "science."


Episode Synopsis:

In this four-part Naturocrit Podcast Episode 12, also known as s02e02, titled

"Preponderant and Universal Medical Ethical Codes and North American Naturopathy's Transgressions",

I'll be looking at general professional ethical commitments and specifically modern medicine's ethical commitments, and comparing those stringencies to naturopathy's 'anything goes ethical laxity and required fraudulence'.

I'll repeat that:

required fraudulence.


Because that is not a mistaken label on my part.

Along with those professional and medical ethical codes and naturopathy's lack thereof, two very different articles about naturopathy will inform this episode:

a 2002 piece in the journal Medical Clinics of North America [MCNA]

by Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine NDs Smith and Logan, who are North American naturopaths and naturopathy proponents,

and what Harvard-trained MD, as in medical doctor, Atwood, a naturopathy critic,

had published at medscape.com in its now shuttered journal Medscape General Medicine in 2003 and 2004

[both years are correct].

In this two-part Part One, I'll take a look at the authors of those articles: where they were published and some of their backgrounds.

And I'll first include my own background, to situate my perspective and approach, so to speak.

In Part Two, I'll provide an overview of two broad medical ethical documents:

the Physician's Charter and the AMA Code of Ethics, both of which concern conventional medicine, that set what I'll call 'a universal preponderance for proper modern medical behavior'.

In Part Three, I'll explore naturopathy's lack of ethical strictures, because -- you may be surprised to find out -- NO such similar formalized mandatory broad ethical code applies to naturopaths.

In other words, very little, by way of behavior, bothers naturopathy.

And let me be clear about an ethical code from the beginning:

without a mandatory ethical code, naturopaths can DO what they want, in terms of rules WITHIN naturopathy, basically.

That is why very little bothers naturopathy, in terms of comparative rights and wrongs:

sanctions happen only when exterior pressures demand a response.

And I'll repeat:

required fraudulence

That is fine WITHIN naturopathy.

I'll also look at what U.S. naturopathy has begun, quite recently in 2015, in terms of an ethical code, which is:

quite optional, quite sparse, and therein quite a joke for an area that terms itself "primary care" (2016 archived)

[I've clarified this statement in Episode 012 Part 3a because the AANP Code is optional and ratified in 2012, while the AANMC Clinical Competencies are optional and began in 2014, and the AANP's Guidance for Naturopathic Practice and Care was 2015].

In Part Four, I'll look in depth at the articles and conclude this Episode.

Part of my conclusion will be what I'll call "naturopathy's unethical code of misconduct", which will be a summation of naturopathy's past and current behaviors generalized into 'rules of misbehavior'.


Some of these Parts will be published in subparts because, I must admit, I anticipate that I'll be wondering around more so than in other Episodes, in this Episode, since I am aiming for this episode to be broad and largely stand-alone.


Part One of Part One, Myself:


My Own Disclosure, as in Some Professional Ethical and Academic Obligations:

The first background I'll deal with is actually my own.

I'll have to speak about myself, since this is an Episode dealing with ethics, and 'transparency is quite the ethical thing to do'.

Let me situate myself.

Let me explain to you what I see as obligations I am bound to, or modes that define me.

I am NOT a physician, and I do NOT work clinically.

I do NOT have a graduate degree, though I do have a B.A. and piles of graduate credits, many of which are garbage from ND school with the requisite Title IV loans.

Actually, I have more graduate credits, in sum, than undergraduate credits:


I have a 3/4 ND, as in naturopathic doctor, I try to joke but, it is not a funny joke.

It's a tragedy.

In a very REAL sense, due to Connecticut naturopathy, I have a transcript polluted with fraud that I cannot separate from my name, or receive restitution or compensation for.

I consider being trained as a naturopath, to then go out and operate as a naturopath commercially, clinically and academically, as being as socially productive as:

'being trained as a hustler and grifter',

 'being taught how to run people over with a motor vehicle', 


'being given a self-regulating ability to reverse all common values without penalty'.

 On my transcript, I have 'doctoral health science' credits from the University of Bridgeport for such naturopathic things as:

'homeopathy and other pseudopharmacy,

Oriental medicine and other medievalisms,

applied kinesiology,

subluxation and meridian 'theories',

 craniosacral therapy,


and colon hydrotherapy',

which are, as science, quite BOGUS.

And 'health science subset forced supernaturalism'

[UB's catalog, even this 2016 (2016 archived), states in their naturopathy section "the following principles are the foundation of naturopathic medical practice [...] treat the whole person [...] since total health also includes spiritual health, naturopathic physicians encourage individuals to pursue their personal spiritual development"].

So you won't hear me speaking of my ND course of study as an OBLIGATION, and as a comparative HIGH bar.

It actually fuels my activities as 'a communicator of a crime that must be publicized'. 

Now, I was denied, at UB naturopathy school, an opportunity to complete my ND degree due to my refusals:

to engage in 'the abundant naturopathic-bogus / to become an agent of the naturopathic-bogus'.

Specifically or especially, for ethical reasons, to maintain my personal integrity, I REFUSED and AVOIDED 'homeopathy, applied kinesiology, subluxation and meridian theories'.

These are third and fourth year course materials;

UB naturopathy-essential things I found repulsive, which I found to be mindfucks all around.

I did leave ND-school in good standing, with high grades, and voluntarily, to then try and sue them, and to do such things as this.

In my last minute in an ND school classroom, in 2002, I refused to take the Homeopathy II midterm and told the teacher in writing that he was a doctrinaire.

That ND homeopathy teacher was one of the clinical supervisors who had blackballed me, along with the other clinical supervisors and clinical director, for dropping and refusing to engage with 'naturopathy's homeopathy and other woo'.

So, I have an albatross of education fraud around my neck, as the lured and exploited customer, and no State or Federal agency cares -- whether consumer-, education-, or health- department -- and the courts told me I have no rights in the matter.

UB CAN offer a fake degree, in terms of its broad categorical academic marketing, in terms of general commerce, and CAN hold ALL the cards:

treating students the way royalty treated peasants during the Middle Ages.

Ironically, in terms of career, I'm an educator with a B.A. in education.

I teach post-secondary allied health -- subjects such as medicine, nursing, science, ethics, coding, software, psychology -- in a career or vocational accreditation environment whose minimum instructor employment standards I quite exceed.

I prepare adults to work mainly for physicians' practices, and along the way achieve national or State of Connecticut certification or registration.

This is something I've been doing for 16 years.

I actually started teaching what I teach while in ND school, and I've taught in the far past as an adjunct for the City University of New York and also there I'd worked for an entity known as the Health Professions Institute.

Along this healthcare educator career path, I've gained four national certifications that each have mandatory ETHICAL obligations.

And I often think about how these compare to naturopathy's 'anything goes' pattern of behavior.

First, there's my RMA registration with American Medical Technologists [AMT].

Then there's my CPC certification with the American Academy of Professional Coders [AAPC].

And then there's my Allied Health Instructor registration with AMT.

And then there's my Post-Secondary Instructor certification with the National Center for Competency Testing [NCCT].

And finally there's my Phi Beta Kappa membership, which I actually was admitted to ND graduate-doctoral level school with, since it is bound-up with my CUNY B.A. transcript.

I'll now talk a little about these because I find myself, without such an illustrious -- wink-wink -- credential as the "doctorate" of naturopathy, without a degree even if of a somewhat 'less illustrious' graduate "masters" level, ironically apparently obligated to HIGHER preponderant ethical strictures then these 'ND supposed primary care physicians'.

Amazing!

I'm a Registered Medical Assistant:

If people don't know what a medical assistant is, AMT's definition from their PDF "Medical Assistant" should suffice:

"a medical assistant [...] is an integral member of the health care delivery team, qualified by education and experience to work in the administrative office, the examining room and the physician office laboratory. The medical assistant, also a liaison between the doctor and the patient, is of vital importance to the success of the medical practice […] medical assistants should not be confused with physician assistants, who examine, diagnose, and treat patients under a physician’s supervision […] most employers prefer graduates [...] from an accredited medical assisting program [...which] are offered in post-secondary vocational schools [...] colleges and universities […in this area] at least two [accrediting] agencies are recognized by the U.S. Department of Education [...] CAAHEP [....and] ABHES [...and we're referred to a US Dept. of Labor document]."


"the Standards of Practice constitutes the code of ethics by which all AMT members and certificants have agreed to and are required to abide. Any person holding an AMT-issued certification who violates the Standards of Practice can be subjected to disciplinary proceedings before the Judiciary Committee. The revised Standards of Practice [...] reflect both practical experience gained by the Judiciary Committee in handling actual disciplinary cases and updated philosophical principles as to what constitutes ethical conduct on the part of AMT's allied health professions."

And we're told in the document "AMT Standards of Practice":

"the American Medical Technologists is dedicated to encouraging, establishing and maintaining the highest standards, traditions, and principles of the disciplines which constitute the allied health professions of the certification agency and the Registry. Members of the Registry and all individuals certified by AMT recognize their professional and ethical responsibilities, not only to their patients, but also to society, to other health care professionals, and to themselves. The AMT Board of Directors has adopted the following Standards of Practice which define the essence of competent, honorable and ethical behavior for an AMT-certified allied health care professional. Reported violations of these Standards will be referred to the Judiciary Committee and may result in revocation of the individual’s certification or other disciplinary sanctions [...] while engaged in the Arts and Sciences that constitute the practice of their profession, AMT professionals shall be dedicated to the provision of competent and compassionate service and shall always meet or exceed the applicable standard of care [...] the AMT professional shall place the health and welfare of the patient above all else [...] when performing clinical duties and procedures, the AMT professional shall act within the lawful limits of any applicable scope of practice, and when so required shall act under and in accordance with appropriate supervision by an attending physician, dentist, or other licensed practitioner [...] the AMT professional shall always respect the rights of patients and of fellow health care providers, shall comply with all applicable laws and regulations governing the privacy and confidentiality of protected healthcare information, and shall safeguard patient confidences unless legally authorized or compelled to divulge protected healthcare information to an authorized individual, law enforcement officer, or other legal or governmental entity [...] AMT professionals shall strive to increase their technical knowledge, shall continue to learn, and shall continue to apply and share scientific advances in their fields of professional specialization [...] the AMT professional shall respect the law and pledges to avoid dishonest, unethical or illegal practices, breaches of fiduciary duty, or abuses of the position of trust into which the professional has been placed as a certified healthcare professional [...] AMT professionals understand that they shall not make or offer a diagnosis or dispense medical advice unless they are duly licensed practitioners or unless specifically authorized to do so by an attending licensed practitioner acting in accordance with applicable law [...] the AMT professional shall observe and value the judgment of the attending physician, dentist, or other attending licensed practitioner, provided that so doing does not clearly constitute a violation of law or pose an immediate threat to the welfare of the patient [...] AMT professionals recognize that they are responsible for any personal wrongdoing, and that they have an obligation to report to the proper authorities any knowledge of professional abuse or unlawful behavior by any party involved in the patient’s diagnosis, care and treatment [...and] the AMT professional pledges to uphold personal honor and integrity."
So that's:

"highest standards, traditions, and principles [...] professional and ethical responsibilities [...] competent, honorable and ethical behavior [...] respect [...] shall continue to learn, and shall continue to apply and share scientific advances in their fields of professional specialization [...] the AMT professional shall respect the law and pledges to avoid dishonest, unethical or illegal practices, breaches of fiduciary duty, or abuses of the position of trust into which the professional has been placed as a certified healthcare professional [...] AMT professionals recognize that they are responsible for any personal wrongdoing, and that they have an obligation to report to the proper authorities any knowledge of professional abuse or unlawful behavior by any party involved in the patient’s diagnosis, care and treatment [...] the AMT professional pledges to uphold personal honor and integrity."

I repeat that because it's important.

Those are very important and good things.

Now, Wikipedia states in "Professional Abuse":

"professional abusers are the individuals that prey on the weaknesses of others in their workplaces or in other places related to economical [sic?] strands of society. Their fundamental behavior is based in the following actions: taking advantage of their client or patient's trust; exploiting their vulnerability; not acting in their best interests; failing to keep professional boundaries. There are many forms of abuse. It may be discriminatory, financial, physical, psychological, sexual. Professional abuse always involves betrayal, exploitation, violation of professional boundaries. Professionals can abuse in three ways: nonfeasance - ignore and take no indicated action – neglect; misfeasance - take inappropriate action or give intentionally incorrect advice; malfeasance - hostile, aggressive action taken to injure the client's interests."


Also, there is a preponderant MA Ethical Code put out by AAMA, which is the American Association of Medical Assistants that awards the CMA certification.

In the AAMA document "Overview", we're told:

"Medical Assisting Code of Ethics: the Medical Assisting Code of Ethics of the AAMA sets forth principles of ethical and moral conduct as they relate to the medical profession and the particular practice of medical assisting.  Members of AAMA dedicated to the conscientious pursuit of their profession, and thus desiring to merit the high regard of the entire medical profession and the respect of the general public which they serve, do pledge themselves to strive always to: render service with full respect for the dignity of humanity; respect confidential information obtained through employment unless legally authorized or required by responsible performance of duty to divulge such information; uphold the honor and high principles of the profession and accept its disciplines; seek to continually improve the knowledge and skills of medical assistants for the benefit of patients and professional colleagues; participate in additional service activities aimed toward improving the health and well-being of the community. Medical Assisting Creed: the Medical Assisting Creed of the AAMA sets forth medical assisting statements of belief: I believe in the principles and purposes of the profession of medical assisting; I endeavor to be more effective; I aspire to render greater service; I protect the confidence entrusted to me; I am dedicated to the care and well-being of all people; I am loyal to my employer; I am true to the ethics of my profession; I am strengthened by compassion, courage and faith."

So that's:

"ethical and moral [...] medical profession [...] respect [...] seek to continually improve […] community […] care and well-being."

Now, I include that AAMA Code, as part of a 'big preponderance', though I am not CMA certified.

I don't actually particularly like some of the language of the AAMA code.

I much prefer AMT's language, its depth, though the RMA and CMA are considered to be corresponding.

AAMA's Code has always seemed to me to be a little condescending, brief, vague, tautological, and its language STRAINED, like:

using the terms "creed [...] belief [...and] faith" for such activities as "render greater service."

There's a religiosity to the words 'creed, belief and faith', in my opinion, and its rather odd that its being placed upon placed upon secular activities.

And the use of such 'religiosity words', to me I find to be 'weird and unnecessarily confusing'.

It strikes me as condescending and paternalistic, because it seems to a have a flavor of doctrine, as in religiosity's 'blindly leap into this', as opposed to the more secular 'arrived at through reason and rationality'.

AAMA's language, in that MA Code, has a flavor of:

'reason and rationality, well, that's too complicated for them CMAs, just have them blindly commit like fervent believers'.

IMHO.

But, overall, whether RMA or CMA, there's this MA commitment to 'the preponderant ethics of modern medicine, being that an MA is an agent of the physician'.

So when AAMA speaks of:

 "I am true to the ethics of my profession", that profession is medicine as in "principles of ethical and moral conduct as they relate to the medical profession [...as in] the honor and high principles of the profession", which is similar to when AMT speaks of "professional and ethical responsibilities."


I have also, in relation to medical assisting and my preferences, just started the blog sciencebasedmedicalassisting.org.

Why not.

Try to stop me.

I've yet to post, by the way, but I will be creating a first post which is a culmination of the ethical codes of the American medical assisting certification organizations.
 
I'm a Certified Professional Coder [a CPC-A, working through my apprenticeship]:

The AAPC has a Code of Ethics, a highly detailed code of ethics.


In "AAPC Code of Ethics", we're told:

"ethics policy: it shall be the responsibility of every AAPC member, as a condition of continued membership, to conduct themselves in all professional activities in a manner consistent with all of the following ethical principles of professional conduct: integrity, respect, commitment, competence, fairness, responsibility. Adherence to these ethical standards assists in assuring public confidence in the integrity and professionalism of AAPC members. Failure to conform professional conduct to these ethical standards, as determined by AAPC's Ethics Committee, may result in the loss of membership with AAPC."

Now, AAPC breaks down the six "ethical principles" into separate web-available pages.


"ethical standards exist in every profession [except naturopathy!]. Integrity is a key element of what every profession considers appropriate ethical behavior. In professional and / or business relationships, integrity is a much sought after trait. Certainly no physician would hire a coder lacking integrity, just as no patient would likely choose a physician lacking integrity. Similarly, coders appreciate working with co-workers and for employers who exhibit integrity. Although it is not difficult to understand the importance of integrity in business relationships (as well as personal ones), it is sometimes difficult to determine what integrity actually is. Honesty, truthfulness, honor, dependability, and trustworthiness are all traits of those with integrity; as is upholding a moral standard of conduct in both professional and personal endeavors […] integrity requires strong moral principles: good character, honor, and honesty […] a person with integrity also politely reminds others who have deviated from such standards that such conduct is inappropriate […] true integrity requires absolute adherence to an appropriate moral code and honesty requires a person always be truthful [...as] standard of conduct […] absolute integrity is something we can only strive to achieve. When you recognize lapses in judgment, how you react will ultimately define your character. In such circumstances, a person with integrity corrects the situation, learns from it, and accepts any associated penalty."


So that's:

ethical standards for EVERY profession, integrity, honesty, truthfulness, honor, dependability, a moral standard of conduct, and good character.

In "Respect", AAPC tells us:


"the expectation of adhering to core ethical elements sets AAPC apart from other certifying organizations. These core ethical standards […] one of the core ethical principles of professional conduct is respect […] are you considerate of other people? […] it is important for members to respect the right of others to express their opinions, including opinions differing from our own. Self-respect is the foundation of a positive direction in life. Developing and maintaining a strong sense of self-respect can help fulfill your potential. Consistently conducting yourself in this manner will help you develop healthy relationships and will let others see you as a person worthy of respect […] ethical people treat others with dignity […] respecting your credentials requires continuous diligence in not only maintaining, but improving your level of professional competence. This requires meeting your continuing education requirements and challenging yourself to go beyond the minimum standards."


So that's:

respect, considerateness, self-respect, dignity, continuous diligence, and professional competence.

 In "Commitment", we're told:

"a commitment obligates you to do something […] when we commit to membership in AAPC, we commit to 'uphold a higher standard,' which includes the responsibility to continually increase our level of professional competence. We commit to the AAPC Code of Ethics and the AAPC Chapter Association Code of Ethics, as well [...such] includes an obligation of complying to the kind of standards that exist in every professional discipline [again, except for naturopathy]. Without these standards, we cannot represent ourselves as a professional discipline [interesting, because naturopathy doesn't have such standards and uses the word profession all the time]. As you consider your commitment to professional conduct, think about your willingness to enhance and improve your professional image, and the image of healthcare professionals across the globe."

 So that's:

upholding a higher standard, continuous work at increasing professional competence, compliance with obligatory preponderant professional standards.

In "Competence", we're told: 

"AAPC's commitment to core values includes competence […] AAPC’s Ethics Committee occasionally encounters disputes involving competency. Surprisingly, such issues rarely involve actual knowledge and skill, but instead involve member conduct, where a coder knew or should have known his or her actions deviated from generally accepted standards and practices […] AAPC seeks to ensure that its membership reflects the very best of competent and trustworthy professionals who can be relied on to help physicians and other providers be properly compensated for their services. The AAPC Code of Ethics should serve as a road map to all who help navigate the business of healthcare." 

So that's:

competence, generally accepted standards and practices, and trustworthiness.

In "Fairness", AAPC tells us:

"the principle of fairness requires impartiality, honesty, and the disclosure of material conflicts of interest […] fairness generally involves a total disregard of personal feelings, prejudices, and desires to attain a proper balance of conflicting interests […] fairness is at the core of all professional engagements […] as AAPC members, you are given the responsibility of developing, administering, and advocating policies and procedures that foster fair, consistent, and equitable treatment for all. Regardless of your personal interests, you are obligated to support and foster a corporate culture made of decisions by your organization that are both ethical and legal. It is your ethical duty to conduct yourself in a manner that equalizes your self-interests with the interests of others. To achieve this goal, you must always act impartially and objectively. When you consider each statement or action from the perspective of those on the receiving side, choosing the correct approach becomes more readily apparent."

So that's:

fairness as impartiality, objectivity, and honesty, consistency, equity, what's ethical and legal.

In "Responsibility", we're told:

"as healthcare business professionals, we have many things for which we are responsible, which is to say, things within our control for which we are answerable or accountable [...] being responsible means considering how your personal decisions and actions may affect others, as well as you. All professionals share the obligation of being accountable for their choices and actions [of course naturopaths aren't if they don't have a code of conduct...] a professional must always be a person holding themselves accountable for their actions and decisions. This is why AAPC members are required to comply with ethical obligations and why sanctions are imposed on those who do not conform to these standards [...] a more practical definition of responsibility is the willingness to respond appropriately, regardless of the situation or the impact of doing so [...] responsibility is a core principle in the AAPC Code of Ethics. It requires conformance with all other elements of the Code and requires every member to assist in the enforcement of the Code of Ethics [...] as AAPC members, we are accountable for our own professional conduct [...and] we have an obligation to ensure the conduct of our colleagues is consistent with professional standards [...] we meet this obligation by controlling our own conduct and reporting instances of misconduct by others."

So that's:

accountability, required ethical obligations, appropriate responses, and reporting instances of misconduct by others.

That's what I like to call 'professionalisms' snitch clause'.

And I would say that these are all very good things, especially for an area like medicine, whose patient's can be exceptionally vulnerable. 

And now for the more education or academic stuff I carry, as certification or qualification.

And I'll return to this idea, in that matter:

one of the tenets of naturopathy is “physician as teacher”.

So, naturopathy is treading 'into the ethics of education as well, into the ethics of teaching'.

Perhaps you could argue into the ethics of pedagogy, and I'll use a word that may be kind of rare in terms of educational language, andragogy.

I'm a Certified Allied Health Instructor:

I think there's an aspect with this, beyond a commitment to the AMT Code of Ethics in terms of medicine and MAs -- the AMT Code of Ethics covers all their certifications or registrations -- that has to do with being 'an education professional'.

And I think foremost there's the idea of 'academic integrity', which broadly applies to both students and faculty, in all higher-education settings.

I'm not in a college or university setting, but I am in an post-secondary setting that is of a similar adult learning context.

I'll deal specifically with 'academic integrity and scientific integrity' when I cover Phi Beta Kappa, in what is soon to follow.

I'm a Certified Post-Secondary Instructor:

NCCT has a Code of Ethics as well, which is rather brief, which includes such things as:

"in making this pledge, I agree to uphold high standards of professional behavior at all times in the role for which am certified by NCCT [...as in an] NCCT professional [...regarding] the obligations of my profession and workplace [...] I shall strive to remain current in my knowledge and skills by participating in continuing education activities within my professional discipline [...] I shall be honest in the performance of my role responsibilities and in all professional interactions with others [...] I shall respect and obey the law, and all regulations within the law, that serve to protect the public in connection to matters of practice related to my professional responsibilities."

So, there's:

"high standards [...] obligations of my profession [...] professional responsibilities [...] honest [...and] respect and obey the law."

Besides what's similar there compared to what I've mentioned from other codes, there's this idea that as an educator who is NCCT certified, it is UNETHICAL not to "remain current in my knowledge."

NCCT, by the way, also certifies MAs with the designation NCMA.

So, though I'm not an NCCT MA, in certification, MAs are committed to the "obligations of my profession", which is medicine.

So, I've covered three organizations that qualify MAs and require that MAs be what I'll term 'medically ethical', as in obligated to the CONDUCT CODE that medical doctors are obligated to, since MAs are agents of medical doctors.

And again, I'll deal with academic integrity and scientific integrity when I cover Phi Beta Kappa, in what immediately follows.

By the way, as I write this, thinking about what naturopathy does in COMPARISON to what these codes BAR, I get VERY ANGRY and I get very NAUSEATED.

As the playwright wrote:

"I can't go on, so I'll go on..."

This is the end of Part One of Part One.

I continue in Part Two of Part One of this Naturocrit Podcast Episode 12, aka Season 02 Episode 02.

Thank you for boldly listening.
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