001. in the recent book "The War on Science" [2016; 9781571313539], Shawn Otto writes:
"[when] what once appeared as an oasis is really a mirage [...] neurophilosopher Patricia Churchland calls this process concept collapse [...] as examples, she offers the concepts of impetus in physics and vitalism in biology [...] with vitalism, the life force [...] was thought to distinguish living things from nonliving things [...] a living body different from a dead one [...] 'some vital force or spirit [...] that concept too has been revealed as illusory' [...]";
meanwhile, naturopathy posits that a "life force" [.gov] or "vis vitalis" [WNF] runs physiology. Now, generously, Churchland is quoted as dating "life force" to the year 1900. So, lets be generous and say vitalism finally died-died-died with the discovery of DNA's structure by Watson and Crick in 1953. That makes naturopathy merely 63 years out-of-date in terms of science. And yet they pose their contents categorically as science all the time.